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Biophysical ecology lab report | heat transfer | thermoregulation
Are you sure you want to YesNo Your message goes here Be the first to like thisNo Downloads Ecology lab report 1. Saundra Swain University of North Carolina at Wilmington Department of Biology and Marine Biology BioL366-204 Bradley Parnell A Comparisonof the OA Layers and the Number of Pine Saplings between an Unburned Forest and a Burned ForestAbstract In this study of forest ecology, two experiments were performed in order to compare thecomposition of burned Long Leaf Pine forests and unburned Long Leaf Pine forests.
Thepurpose of this study was to discover whether there was a difference in the OA layers of the twoforests as well as whether one of the two forests contained more pine saplings than the other. Wehypothesized that there would be no difference in the number of long leaf pine saplings betweenthe burned forest and unburned forest and that there would be no difference in the depth of theOA layer between the burned forest and the unburned forest.
After completing this study, wecould not reject either of these uction The southeast United States were once densely populated with long-leaf pine forests butthese forests began to decline in number after the arrival of European settlers. The decrease inthe number of natural fires has allowed hardwoods and other trees to invade and begin todominate the long-leaf pine forest.
Ecologists and land managers have been using controlled firesas a way to restore the natural balance of the long-leaf forest (Brockway and Lewis 1997). Adultlong-leaf pines are very fire resistant, so regular burning can help maintain or restore a long-leafpine forest by burning the less fire-resistant hardwood seedlings and saplings (Outcalt 2008).
Studies also show that controlled burning also significantly decreases the forest floor mass in theOI and OA layers (Knoepp, et al. Swain 2 This goal of this study is to compare the OA layers and the number of pine saplingsbetween two forests on the University of North Carolina at Wilmington campus; one forest hasnot been burned in over twenty years, while the other forest is regularly burned in order toconserve the long-leaf pine forest.
This study tested these hypotheses: there is no differencebetween the OA layer of an unburned forest and a burned forest and that there is no difference inthe number of saplings between an unburned forest and a burned als and Methods To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the number of long leaf pine saplingsbetween the burned forest and the unburned forest, we took ten steps into the burned forest nearthe Cultural Arts building at UNCW.
We then threw a Frisbee marked with an arrow torandomly choose quadrat location and direction Biophysical Ecology Lab Report Pettit 2. Abstract. In this experiment, stimulated ectotherms in the form of Marshmallow Peeps with I-. button data loggers placed .
Our first quadrat began ten steps from theFrisbee in the direction indicated by the arrow. This quadrat, and all subsequent quadrats, wasmeasured using a tape measure into 2m x 4m rectangles and marked with flags.
We then countedthe number of pine saplings within the quadrat by measuring the diameter of each pine tree; anytree that I could put my hand around and touch my middle finger to my thumb was counted as asapling. We then tossed the Frisbee again and took ten steps from the Frisbee in the direction ofthe arrow to establish the next quadrat.
This process was repeated until data was collected fromten quadrats. When our path led to a forest edge or trail, we turned into the forest and took tensteps, then threw the Frisbee and took ten steps in the direction of the arrow and established thenext quadrat at that point.
We then went to the unburned forest and repeated the process untildata was collected from an additional ten quadrats. The data testing the sapling hypothesis was 3.
Swain 3analyzed using the Chi-squared test with a p value of p<0. 05 and the Yate’s Correction for theChi-squared test.
To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the depth of the OA layer between theburned forest and the unburned forest, we took ten steps into the same burned forest and threw aFrisbee to determine the direction of the transect. We took ten steps from the Frisbee in thedirection of the arrow and used a soil tube to measure the full depth of the OA layer at that then took ten steps from this point in the direction indicated by the Frisbee thrown at thebeginning and took another measurement of the OA layer at this point.
We repeated this methoduntil data was collected from ten points along the transect. When our path led to a forest edge ortrail, we turned into the forest and took ten steps, then threw the Frisbee and took ten steps in thedirection of the arrow and took the next sample at that point; using the direction of the arrow asthe direction of the transect.
We then went to the unburned forest and repeated the process untildata was collected from an additional ten points 18 Jan 2013 - Introduction. Ecology Lab Report Sample. The big picture is that sampling natural systems in a structured repeatable way is critical for .
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We used this data toperform a t-test and Shapiro-Wilk s In comparison of the burned forest and the unburned forest, it was found that the evidencefailed to reject the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference between OAlayers of the two forest types (d. Further analysisshows the burned forest having an OA layer range of 7.
The unburned forest was represented by an OA layer range of 12 cm, a meanof 16 cm, and a standard deviation of 3.
The data collected found that accordingto the Shapiro-Wilk test, there is not enough evidence to reject our null hypothesis that there 4.
Swain 4would be a normal distribution in the OA layer between the unburned forest (W=0. Our sapling comparisons using the Chi-Square test ( 2< 3.
= 1),showed that there was not enough evidence to reject our null hypothesis that there was nodifference between the unburned forest and the burned forest ( 2 = 3, p >0.
TheYate’s Correction of the Chi-Square Test further supports our results found for saplingdifferences between the unburned forest and the burned forest ( 2 = 1.
Discussion The evidence collected in this study did not allow us to reject our hypothesis that therewould be no difference between the OA layers between the burned forest and the unburnedforest ECOLOGY LAB REPORTS. For other biology classes, you have probably written formal lab reports in the style of scientific publications. In this class, you will use .
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One possibility to explain this result is that the burned forest has not beenrecently burned, allowing organic matter to collect. Swank suggest that their results were similar; their study showed a difference in the OI layer, butnot in the OA layer.
Vose suggests that the fires were not severe enough to affect the OA layer;perhaps this also occurred in our forest (Vose and Swank 1993). The evidence collected in this study also did not allow us to reject our other hypothesisthat there would be no difference in the number of pine saplings between the burned forest andthe unburned forest.
The Chi-squared test result shown in Table 4 is small, indicating that there isno difference in the number of pine saplings between the two forests. Swain 5explained by the lack of recent burning and possible low severity burns. However, onealternative explanation is that the burns were carried out in the wrong season.
If the oaks in theforest were still seedlings when the forest was burned, they may have resprouted. Along thissame idea, if the hardwoods were too mature when the forest was burned, they may have alreadythickened their bark and become more fire resistant (Moser and Wade 2005).
Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge my lab partners Sarah Dixon, Brenda Quebec, and LukeRoberts for their help designing the experiments and collecting and analyzing the data. I wouldalso like to thank Bradley Parnell for helping us in the forest and reviewing calculations anddrafts of this ture CitedBrockway, Dale G.
Long-term effects of dormant-season prescribed fire on plant community diversity, structure and productivity in a longleaf pine wiregrass ecosystem.
Effects of prescribed fire in mixed oak forests of the southern Appalachians: forest floor, soil, and soil solution nitrogen responses. Fire exclusion as a disturbance in the temperate forests of the USA: Examples from longleaf pine forests. Lightning, fire and longleaf pine: Using natural disturbance to guide management. Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian pine-hardwood stands: aboveground biomass, forest floor mass, and nitrogen and carbon pools.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 2255-2262. Swain 6TablesTable 1 - Descriptive Statistics for depth of OA layer in burned and unburned forests in cm Unburned Burned Forest Forest Mean 16 16. 31 Deviation Sample Size 10 10Table 2 – Shapiro-Wilk test for depth of OA layer in burned and unburned forests Unburned Burned Forest Forest W value 0. 066Table 3 – Results of T-test for OA layer depth p-value 0. 6345Table 4 – Chi squared test results for number of pine saplings 2 3 df 1 Yates correction 1. Swain 7FiguresFigure 1- Depth of OA layer in burned and unburned Long Leaf Pine forest