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Format for a research paper a research guide for students
Regardless of the nature of your research, if you are writing a paper an outline will help you to not only organize your thoughts, it will also serve as the template for your entire paper Chapter 4: Submission to Print: Submitting a Paper for Publication and the specialising in Old and Middle English language and literature and the 'The Manuscript Experience: What Medieval Vernacular Manuscripts Tell Us Page 8 educational studies that have researched various aspects of scholarly writing, from..Regardless of the nature of your research, if you are writing a paper an outline will help you to not only organize your thoughts, it will also serve as the template for your entire paper.
An outline for a research paper is a visual reminder to include all of the pertinent details of your research into your essay or paper.It is essentially a skeletal version of the true paper, and will guide you through the entire process.How do you create an outline for your paper? Initially, separating your essay, research or other paper into various components (Introduction, Body, Conclusion, etc.) will help you to stay better organized and reduce the risk of important information being forgotten or unintentionally omitted.
Furthermore, breaking the essay down into these parts will allow you to address specific parts individually and lessen the chances of feeling overwhelmed or like you might be in over your head .Furthermore, breaking the essay down into these parts will allow you to address specific parts individually and lessen the chances of feeling overwhelmed or like you might be in over your head.How to Write an Outline for a Research Paper The structure of your outline will be similar regardless of whether you are writing a scientific paper or something more general.Interestingly, the structure of a research outline is nearly identical to that of a research paper template. In order to better acquaint yourself with the structure of an outline, check out sample research papers online.
The USC Guide to Making an Outline will also help you.
The chief components to an outline are: The Introduction The Conclusion Relatively straightforward, right? However, the part to remember is that each part serves a specific purpose and how you arrange information in your outline will drive how your paper reads upon completion.The Introduction is one of the most important elements of any great research paper, and interestingly enough, often written LAST.This is because the purpose of the introduction is to grab the attention of the reader, this is done by presenting the reader with the topic, and using the thesis statement as an opportunity to ‘hook’ the attention of the reader.The Body is the heartiest part of the essay, it includes many fact-rich paragraphs or subsections and will allow you to build upon your thesis statement by providing facts to support your argument.This section should not only elaborate on your opening statement, but also provide insight into the methods used to conduct your research and also include investigative points or answers to questions pondered.
You will also want to consider using a literature overview.This is achieved by documenting the literary sources used to support your theories and hypothesis.The topic of your paper and the selected literature should be adjacent.If you used any sort of data validation, this will typically follow the methodology and literature sections.This is where you will highlight your results and mention other variables that you’ve uncovered in your research.
You might choose to use graphs or tables, but remember to explain these to your readers.Lastly, you will write your Conclusion.The conclusion typically does not offer new information, but rather summarizes the main points addressed in the paper.It is mandatory to also reiterate the thesis statement and mention any future research.Essay Examples Database Access more than 500,000 hand-picked sample essays and get inspired.
Search our giant database of original essays classified by topic.Stuck on your essay? Explore thousands of essay samples for just $14.How to Format a Research Paper There are a number of sources you can turn to for research paper examples and, depending on your field of study, a plethora of potential high quality topics exist to pull your subject matter from.As you will learn from looking any good research paper example, writing a great paper involves so much more than simply throwing a bunch of text and citations into a word processor and hoping for the best.
A passing grade means not only thoroughly researching your topic and ensuring that all of your sources are accurately cited, it also means ensuring that your research essay is properly formatted.The following guideline will help you to create finished paper that not only reads like it was professionally written – but also looks like it! Formatting A Research Paper 2.Margins Leave margins of your essay 1″ (2.5 cm) at the top, bottom, left and right sides of each and every page.Exception is made for page numbers which are placed 1/2″ (1.
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25 cm) from the top upper-right hand corner, flushed to the right margin.Title Page A title page is not essential for a research paper unless specifically requested by your teacher.The MLA Handbook provides a general guideline on writing a research paper and documenting sources see a mixture of letter grades and number grades for different GCSEs will have moved onto the 9-1 grading scale. may step up the level of demand as you work through the paper, GCSE English Language and GCSE English Literature qualifications. have studied in class. one exam that was 2 hours long..
The MLA Handbook provides a general guideline on writing a research paper and documenting sources.
In case of conflict, you should always follow guidelines set down by your teacher.If you don’t have a title page, you may begin 1″ from the top of the first page of your essay and start typing your name flushed against the left margin.Then under your name, on separate lines, double-spaced, and flushed against the left margin, type your teacher’s name, your course code, and the date.If your teacher prefers the first page of your essay not be numbered, you will begin numbering with page 2.On a new line, center the title of your essay.If you have a long title, double-space between lines of the title.Example: Gun Control: Pros and Cons Do not type your title all in capital letters.Do not put quotations marks before and after the title.Do not underline the title, or put a period at the end of the title.
Proper names of people and places as well as important words should be capitalized in the title, but prepositions and conjunctions are normally shown in lower case letters, e.Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.The same rule applies to headings and subheadings as well.Follow the same capitalization rules for acronyms as you normally would in writing a text of the essay, e.
FBI would be all in capitals as it is the acronym for Federal Bureau of Investigations.When using an acronym, especially an uncommon one, you must indicate what the letters stand for at the first occurrence in your essay.Example: The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is nearly finished converting from using standard desktop PCs to blade PCs.
If a Title Page is a requirement for your assignment, begin on a new page.
Otherwise, center each line and double-space every line on a blank page: name of school (optional), title of paper in upper and lower case, course code, course name (optional), teacher’s name, your first and last name, and date.Your separate title page should appear as follows: Gun Control: Pros and Cons NRW-3A1-01 TITLE OF ESSAY: “GUN CONTROL: PROS AND CONS” COURSE CODE: “NRW-3A1-01” FROM YOUR STUDENT: “TRACY MARIA CHRISTINA CARMELA JONES” ASSIGNMENT DUE DATE: “MONDAY, JANUARY THE SIXTEENTH, IN THE YEAR 2006” It is not necessary to describe or explain the title page by adding the words: Title, Course Code, To, From, or Due Date.Minimal information providing simple identification is adequate.
Essay Examples Database Access more than 500,000 hand-picked sample essays and get inspired.Search our giant database of original essays classified by topic.Stuck on your essay? Explore thousands of essay samples for just $14.Numbering Pages and Paragraphs Number your pages consecutively throughout the essay in the upper right hand corner, flush against the right margin and 1/2″ from the top.The MLA Handbook recommends that you type your last name just before the page number in case the pages get misplaced (134).On page 4 of your essay, for example, your top right-hand corner should show: Jones 4 Page numbers must be written in Arabic numerals.Do not add anything fancy to decorate a page number.Do not underline it, enclose it between hyphens, parentheses, asterisks, or precede it with “Page”, “Pg.
In other words, DO NOT use any of the following: PAGE 4, Page 4, Pg.4, #4, ~ 4 ~, – 4 -, * 4*, (4), “4”, 4, or 4.Remember, there is no period after the page number.If you are submitting your essay to your teacher via e-mail, he or she may prefer that you number all your paragraphs consecutively with reference points by adding 1 at the beginning of your 1st paragraph, 2 before your 2nd paragraph, and so forth.Electronic submission of documents is becoming more common as e-mail is being used widely.
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This system will facilitate the citation of sources by identifying a specific paragraph for reference very quickly.
Spacing Between Lines Whether your essay is handwritten, typed or printed, the entire essay should be double-spaced between lines along with 1″ margin on all sides for your teacher to write comments.WE CAN HELP YOU one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon Eight reasons I rejected your article Elsevier.WE CAN HELP YOU one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon.
Traditionally, two spaces are required at the end of every sentence whether the sentence ends with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.Although it is not wrong to leave two spaces after a period, it is quite acceptable nowadays to leave only one space after each punctuation mark 12 Sep 2012 - Before they even go to the editor-in-chief, articles are checked for of Carbon, the international journal of the American Carbon Society, and The article contains observations but is not a full study. The conclusions ignore large portions of the literature. Have a native English speaker read the paper..
Although it is not wrong to leave two spaces after a period, it is quite acceptable nowadays to leave only one space after each punctuation mark.
However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op 12 Sep 2012 - Before they even go to the editor-in-chief, articles are checked for of Carbon, the international journal of the American Carbon Society, and The article contains observations but is not a full study. The conclusions ignore large portions of the literature. Have a native English speaker read the paper..However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op.or “Why me?” For details on how to place tables, illustrations, figures, musical notations, labels, captions, etc.in your essay, please see the MLA Handbook (134-137).Indentation If a handwritten essay is acceptable to your teacher, remember to double-space all lines, and begin each paragraph with an indentation of 1″ from the left margin.Use the width of your thumb as a rough guide.If you are using a typewriter or a word processor on a computer, indent 5 spaces or 1/2″ at the beginning of each paragraph.Indent set-off quotations 10 spaces or 1″ from the left margin.Your instructor may give you a choice to indent or not to indent your paragraphs.
No matter whichever one you choose to use, you must be consistent throughout your essay.If you are NOT indenting, you will start each paragraph flush to the left margin.It is essential that you double-space between lines and quadruple-space between paragraphs.When paragraphs are not indented, it is difficult for a reader to see where a new paragraph begins, hence quadruple-space is called for between paragraphs.Set-off quotations should still be indented 10 spaces or 1″ from the left margin.
Right Justify and Automatic Hyphens: Do not right justify your entire essay and do not automatically format hyphens if you are using a word processor to type your essay.Left justify or justify your essay and type in the hyphens yourself where needed.Left justification is preferred as it will not leave big gaps between words.
Essay Examples Database Access more than 500,000 hand-picked sample essays and get inspired.
Search our giant database of original essays classified by topic.Stuck on your essay? Explore thousands of essay samples for just $14.Titles of Books, Magazines, Newspapers, or Journals When used within the text of your paper, titles of all full-length works such as novels, plays, or books, should be underlined, e.
Put in quotation marks titles of shorter works, such as newspaper, journal, and magazine articles, chapters of books or essays, e.: “Giving Back to the Earth: Western Helps Make a Difference in India.
” For all title citations, every word, except articles (“ a“, “ and“, “ but“, “ “And Now for Something Completely Different: A Hedgehog Hospital.” Look it up in a dictionary whenever you are not sure whether a word is being used as a preposition, a conjunction, a noun, a verb, or an adverb.The word “ near“, for instance, may be an adverb, an adjective, a verb, or a preposition depending on the context in which it is used.For complicated details on how to cite titles and quotations within titles, sacred texts, shortened titles, exceptions to the rule, etc.please consult the MLA Handbook (102-109).
Writing an Essay All in Capital Letters: DO NOT WRITE OR TYPE EVERYTHING ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS EVEN THOUGH THIS SAVES YOU TIME AND EFFORT NOT TO HAVE TO USE THE SHIFT KEY REPEATEDLY OR TO HAVE TO FIGURE OUT WHEN OR WHEN NOT TO USE CAPITAL PEOPLE WRITE EVERYTHING IN CAPITAL LETTERS BECAUSE THEY HAD NEVER LEARNED TO WRITE SENTENCES IN UPPER AND LOWER-CASE LETTERS PROPERLY WHEN THEY WERE IN ELEMENTARY PEOPLE WRITE ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS BECAUSE THEY WANT TO MAKE WHAT THEY WRITE APPEAR G A PAPER ALL WRITTEN IN CAPITAL LETTERS,ESPECIALLY ONE WITHOUT SPACES AFTER PUNCTUATION MARKS,SLOWS DOWN READING SPEED AND MAY EVEN REDUCE READER COMPREHENSION,BESIDES BEING EXTREMELY ANNOYING TO THE ER THAT THE PURPOSE OF WRITING ANYTHING IS TO OF US ARE NOT CONDITIONED TO READ ALL TEXT IN CAPITAL PROCESSORS ALSO TREAT WORDS STUCK TOGETHER WITHOUT SPACES AS SINGLE WORDS CAUSING OTHER PROBLEMS.Table of Contents A short essay or research paper requires no Table of Contents.If your written report or research paper is extremely long, it may be helpful to include a Table of Contents showing the page number where each section begins.
For those writing a lengthy document, i.
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a book, here is the suggested order for placing items in a Table of Contents: Acknowledgements, Foreword, Introduction, Body (Parts I, II, III), Summary or Conclusion, Afterword, Explanatory Notes, Appendices, Contact Organizations, Glossary, Endnotes (if not using Footnotes or Parenthetical citations), Bibliography, Index.A less involved Table of Contents may include simply the following sections: Introduction, Body (use main section headings), Conclusion (or Summary), Works Cited (or References), along with the corresponding page number where each section begins.Example: Conclusion ………………………………………………………………… Jump to Don t go overboard using attachments in addition to proof ample for - Lyon, add-on case technology affluent college senior standard ama Need to 12 hours accolade us letter size apa online Premium Harvard 8 hours 3 .
Example: Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….
End of Essay No special word, phrase or fancy symbol is needed to mark the end of your essay.A period at the end of your last sentence is all that is needed Standards According to an earlier study (Smith, 2006) it is argued that. and opportunities in the psychological study of entrepreneurship the case of China. For references to articles published online before they have been published in Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the .A period at the end of your last sentence is all that is needed.Keeping Essay Together Sheets of paper should be stapled at the upper left-hand corner.
Use a paper clip if no stapler is available.Unless specifically requested by your teacher, do not hand in your paper in a folder, a binder, a plastic jacket, rolled up with an elastic band around it, or tied with a ribbon or a string.Do not spray perfume or cologne on your paper or use scented paper.And NEVER hand in your research or term paper in loose sheets even if the sheets are numbered and neatly placed in an envelope or folder.
The condition of the paper you hand in is an indication of the respect you have for yourself and the respect you have for your teacher.Before handing in your paper, ask yourself, “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?” Final Note on Your Essay The topics used for each research paper are inherently different, and even identical topics will appear to be unique based on the viewpoints and educational level of the author.Regardless of your grade level or the topic you’ve been assigned, a research paper outline can help you turn in a great essay.It should include a bulleted list of subheadings and headings, be sure to include as much detail as possible.Crossing out each section as you finish it will help you to stay thorough.
INTRODUCTION The methodology being used 'Eight reasons I rejected your article' 'Eight reasons I rejected your article' A journal editor reveals the top reasons so many manuscripts don’t make it to the peer review process By Peter Thrower, PhDPosted on 12 September 2012 Share story:The Author When a manuscript is submitted to a high-quality scholarly journal, it goes through intense scrutiny— even before it's seen by the editor-in-chief and selected for peer review.At Elsevier, between 30 percent to 50 percent of articles don't even make it to the peer review process.As Editor-in-Chief of , the international journal of the American Carbon Society, Dr.Peter Thrower experiences this situation first-hand.His advice to authors: "By avoiding these pitfalls, you will save reviewers, editors and staff time and frustration, and ensure that your work is judged by its scientific merit, not mistakes.
Before they even go to the editor-in-chief, articles are checked for technical elements.The main reasons they are rejected are: Peter Thrower, PhD, is Editor-in-Chief of Carbon, the international journal of the American Carbon Society, and Professor Emeritus of Material Sciences and Engineering at Penn State University.
The article contains elements that are suspected to be plagiarized, or it is currently under review at another journal.
(Republishing articles or parts of articles, submitting to one or more journals at the same time or using text or images without permission is not allowed.) The manuscript is not complete; it may be lacking key elements such as the title, authors, affiliations, keywords, main text, references and all tables and figures).The English is not sufficient for the peer review process, The figures are not complete or are not clear enough to read.The article does not conform to the Guide for Authors for the journal it is submitted to.
It does not fall within the Aims and Scope.For the journal The study uses a carbon material but the focus is on something different.The article contains observations but is not a full study.It discusses findings in relation to some of the work in the field but ignores other important work.The procedures and/or analysis of the data is seen to be defective.The study lacked clear control groups or other comparison metrics.The study did not conform to recognized procedures or methodology that can be repeated.The analysis is not statistically valid or does not follow the norms of the field.The conclusions cannot be justified on the basis of the rest of the paper.
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The arguments are illogical, unstructured or invalid.The data does not support the conclusions.The conclusions ignore large portions of the literature You will also want to consider using a literature overview. As you will learn from looking any good research paper example, writing a Use clean, good quality 8 1/2″ x 11″ white paper, one side only. name just before the page number in case the pages get misplaced (134). Please Send Your Suggestion For Us..The conclusions ignore large portions of the literature.
It's simply a small extension of a different paper, often from the same authors.Findings are incremental and do not advance the field.The work is clearly part of a larger study, chopped up to make as many articles as possible Help me with an antique literature case study two hours academic nbsp.The work is clearly part of a larger study, chopped up to make as many articles as possible.The language, structure, or figures are so poor that the merit can't be assessed ecology.The language, structure, or figures are so poor that the merit can't be assessed.Have a native English speaker read the paper.Even if you ARE a native English speaker.The question behind the work is not of interest in the field.The work is not of interest to the readers of the specific journals.For more advice, check out the step-by-step guide Thank you both for your comments.I will pass them on to Professor Shaukat Wasi Hmmmm.
How to identify that "My work is of interest to the readers of the specific journals"?Reply SC October 18, 2012 at 4:57 am The above may be correct for some good journals etc.Why not the papers for review are send to the reviewers without names, institution, country see the result!!!Reply Linda Willems October 18, 2012 at 4:51 pm Thank you very much for your comment.I just wanted to let you can find some useful tips for finding journals and submitting papers on our author December 31, 2012 at 5:50 am Now this is interesting.In rssopnee to my declining to participate in the peer review of a non-OA journal, I get this note, refusing even to admit the reason I gave:Dear Dr.
Zane Selvans,You were recently invited to review the above manuscript, but we have not yet received your reply.Because of production and time restrictions, we must now proceed with evaluating this manuscript without your you for your past efforts on behalf of the journal.I hope that we may have the privilege of using your services in the future when the timing is more sincerely,Oded AharonsonEditorIcarusMaybe there really is no reform in this world without S.Chakraverty December 23, 2012 at 6:06 am Theoretically all are great and correct but practically those are not being followed by 95% of the is my experience .
why not all journals should be blind review (without, name, country etc.
) Just try for one year at least!!Reply Abraham Goodhead Nice to know these little but important secretsReply Share story:Jun 24, 2014 As a journalist, I begin most interviews by holding up my pen and asking, “Have you ever seen one of these?” No one ever has.It’s a Sky wifi smartpen, a piece of gee-whiz technology from a company called Livescribe.Basically, the smartpen replaces all your standard reporter’s tools.To start with, it’s an old-fashioned pen for old-fashioned paper, so I can still scribble my notes the way I always have.
The smartpen is also a high-quality digital recorder, creating an audio file of the interview as we go along.Finally, a tiny camera near the tip of the pen simultaneously takes pictures of my notes as I write.All of that information is then pulled together by a microprocessor housed in the barrel of the pen.And because the smartpen is really a computer, it’s able to sync up the picture of my handwritten notes with the audio file.That means I can tap the tip of the pen anywhere in my notebook, and the pen will instantly replay the audio of whatever was being said when I took that note.
And since it’s WiFi enabled, the whole interview—audio file, notes, and all—is automatically uploaded to my Evernote account.There’s one other feature I like to point out.It’s possible, I tell people, to get optical character recognition software to go with the pen.If you write like a normal person, the OCR will automatically convert your handwritten notes into a text file that you can then copy and paste into your word processor.
For many reporters, this is the best feature, obviating the painful task of transcribing long interviews.
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But it doesn’t work for me, I explain, because even though I’m recording this interview with the latest model Sky wifi smartpen, I’m taking notes using a 19th Century technology called Gregg shorthand.In many respects, Gregg is even more ingenious than the smartpen.And, although no electronics or gizmos were involved, it was a tremendously powerful and influential technology for nearly 100 years Should i purchase a antique literature case study Junior Bluebook A4 (British/European) Business.And, although no electronics or gizmos were involved, it was a tremendously powerful and influential technology for nearly 100 years.
Now, it’s become the key to my workflow in the Internet age.
Gregg is a way of compressing language.You are the machine that does the encoding and decoding Best websites to get college antique literature case study originality American College Senior 81 pages / 22275 words Academic.You are the machine that does the encoding and decoding.And your brain can do it in real time at very, very high speeds.To understand why, you have to know a little about how it works abatakids.net/research-proposal/where-to-buy-a-cultural-science-research-proposal-editing-us-letter-size-63-pages-17325-words-cheap.To understand why, you have to know a little about how it works.Gregg is basically a much simpler and more efficient writing system than longhand English.
This starts with the letters themselves.The Roman alphabet, which we use to write English, is much more complicated than is strictly necessary to distinguish one letter from another.To print a lower-case “b”, for example, requires a long, downward stroke with a clockwise loop at the base.Then, you have to pick up your pen to move to the next letter, an extraneous step that takes up almost as much time as the writing itself.Cursive (when was the last time you heard that word?) may seem a little faster, but it actually requires additional strokes, short ligatures at the beginning and the end of each letter.
That’s a lot of wasted motion, which is why cursive is actually only about 10 percent faster than print.In contrast, Gregg’s “letters” are much simpler shapes.Here's the first paragraph of this article written in shorthand:Dennis Hollier Consonants are either shallow curves or straight lines; vowels are either loops or small hooks.The Gregg “b”, for example, is an uncomplicated downward stroke of the pen—a long, forward-leaning curve that faces to the right, like an open parenthesis in italics.If you measure the complexity of writing in the number of strokes, the Gregg “b” requires just one stroke compared to the four or five that comprise the Roman “b.
” Gregg letters also require no ligatures; each letter blends seamlessly into the others.In the combination “b-r”, for instance, the long, downward curve of a “b” joins the short, horizontal curve of an “r” to form a sort of right-handed fishhook.Here, you can see the Gregg letter "b," then "r," and a combination of the two, which would represent "bring" (more on that abbreviation in a minute):Dennis Hollier In Gregg, the simplification of the forms of letters reaches its apogee in a process called “blending”.The individual strokes of many frequently combined letter pairs are written with a single blended stroke.The short, straight, horizontal dash of an “n” and the long, diagonal, upward stroke of the “d” join to become a long, upward curve that represents “nd”.
This not only reduces the number of strokes, it eliminates the momentary pause necessary to form an angle between the “n” and the “d”.This simplicity of design—the absence of superfluous strokes—accounts for about 10 percent of the speed of Gregg.Here's "n," "d," then the "nd" combo: Dennis Hollier Another advantage of Gregg is that it’s phonetic.The word “bay”, for example, is written “b-a”—the simple downward curve of the “b”, finished with the large, counter-clockwise loop of an “a”, so that the whole word, three letters in longhand, looks pretty much like a single sloping version of the Roman “b”.Gregg eschews the parade of silent letters, like the “y” in “bay” that make English so difficult to learn as a second language.
Here a sequence showing "b," "a," then "ba" for "bay:" Dennis Hollier Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are completely absent from Gregg; there is no sound for “c” besides those already represented by “k” and “s”.On the other hand, there are common phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that require a combination of letters in the Roman alphabet, but can each be written with a single letter in Gregg.“Though,” which, in longhand, requires six complex symbols strung together with seven short ligatures, is rendered with two short strokes in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even further, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to get to the phonetic nugget of the word: “bed” is written as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”.
This economy of spelling saves another 10 percent of the note-taker’s time.
But the biggest impact from Gregg shorthand comes from its systematic approach to abbreviation.For instance, almost every letter in Gregg, written by itself, represents a common word.
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Some are used for several different words, depending on the context.Our Gregg friend “b” can mean “be”, “by”, or “but”.The Gregg letter “r” can mean “are”, “our”, or “hour Letters Oxford Today.
The Gregg letter “r” can mean “are”, “our”, or “hour.
” The Gregg letter “t” can mean “it” or “at.” In this way, nearly 100 of the most common words in English can be rendered in a single stroke.Similarly, most common English words have an abbreviated spelling of one or two strokes Need to get a custom antique literature case study double spaced Business 3 days Platinum.Similarly, most common English words have an abbreviated spelling of one or two strokes.The elegant Gregg version of“b-r,” for example, is short for “bring” and is written in an instant.Here it is again:Dennis Hollier And, since 60 percent of spoken English is comprised of about 600 of these common words, brief forms play a huge role is speeding up Gregg.
“Brief form” is actually a technical term in Gregg.Anyone can learn the Gregg alphabet in an afternoon and probably double their writing speed; but to become truly fast—like the remaining handful of Gregg-powered court reporters in the federal courts who take down testimony at more than 200 words per minute—you have to memorize dozens or hundreds of common abbreviations.That sounds hard until you remember that your head is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, most of which you learned organically as you needed them.And the Gregg versions are at least more systematic, so they accrue quickly.
But the brief form is more than a simple abbreviation, it’s the distillation of the basic premise of shorthand: Never write more than is necessary to understand it later.Using this principle, thousands of long, Latinate words are shortened to three or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Short forms were especially important in the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, were also epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.One especially fertile approach to abbreviation in Gregg is the use of single letters as stand-ins for common prefixes or suffixes, depending on whether they’re written before or after the words they modify.As prefixes, these letters can be either attached to or detached from the word.
For example, a detached “g,” written just before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but also as in “grandiloquent,” or even “granular” (which can be written “g” above “l-r.”) On the other hand, an attached “k” at the beginning of a word can be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” so “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and is the short form for Congress.But a detached “k” written above a word is the prefix “counter” or “contra”; so “k” written over a “b”, for example, is read “contrib” and is the short form for “contribute” or “contribution.A detached “g” at the end of a word stands for “gram,” as in “program.
” A detached “k” stands for “ical,” as in “medical.” And a detached “o” takes the place of “ology,” as in “biology.” These forms can also be added together to create longer words.“Biological” is written “b-i” followed by a detached “o-k.” In this way, long, complex words are reduced to two or three quick flicks of the pen, and yet remain completely legible to anyone who knows the Gregg system.
Combined, the brief forms and the abbreviation principle account for about half of Gregg’s advantage over longhand.Not only are the letters uncomplicated and simply joined, there are fewer of them to write.The final element that makes Gregg so blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” Using this method, many common expressions can be dashed off in a few strokes without ever lifting the pen from the page.For example, the phrase “it will be” is composed of three common words, each of which can be written separately with a single letter: “i,” written with a short, straight, upward stroke that slopes to the right, represents “it;” “l,” a long, horizontal, upward-facing curve, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving stroke, represents “be.
” Phrasing allows you to join all three of these letters in one elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes less than a quarter-second to write.Here's "it will be" on the first line, with "I have been" below it: Dennis Hollier And there are literally thousands of these phrases in Gregg shorthand.Most importantly, unlike short forms, they don’t require much memorization; they’re the product of a few simple rules.* * * There you have it: a short course in the technology that made the Irishman John Robert Gregg an American tycoon in the first half of the 20th Century.By the time he died, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from his headquarters on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into almost every school, business and courthouse in the country.
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While he was fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put out hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, study guides, magazines, and shorthand versions of classical literature—John Robert Gregg also oversaw a national infrastructure of certification agencies, business schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the skills of all professional shorthand writers.If you wanted to be an executive secretary, you needed a certificate from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 words per minute.If you wanted to be a court reporter, you had to demonstrate you could write an astonishing 225 words per minute with better than 98 percent accuracy How to Write 225 Words Per Minute With a Pen The Atlantic.If you wanted to be a court reporter, you had to demonstrate you could write an astonishing 225 words per minute with better than 98 percent accuracy.
Altogether, millions of people passed through Gregg training and the Gregg certification system.For nearly a century, Gregg was an essential part of American society.
As recently as the 1970s, almost every high school in the country taught Gregg GCSE 9 1 English Language and English Literature Parent and nbsp.As recently as the 1970s, almost every high school in the country taught Gregg.Certainly, every business school and most colleges offered Gregg-certified shorthand courses.But Gregg’s decline began when McGraw-Hill bought Gregg Publishing, shortly after John Robert Gregg’s death.The rise of stenography machines in the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand from the courtroom (though there are still a handful of “pen writers” in the federal court system).
The Dictaphone and other recording devicesmade verbatim note taking less and less important in the office.
And some people say improvements in women’s rights also played a role in the decline of Gregg.In a time when they were denied careers in fields like the law or medicine, the smartest, most talented women often ended up as secretaries or executive assistants and became gifted shorthand practitioners.In the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities, those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg.The real death knell for Gregg, though, was the arrival of the personal computer in the 1980s.Even high-level executives no longer dictated letters to their secretaries; they wrote them themselves on their desktop computers.
Companies that used to have scores of skilled shorthand writers eliminated their steno pools entirely.Today, I'm not aware of any high school that teaches Gregg.It's almost impossible to find it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community colleges in New York City, where Gregg writers are still prized by some white glove law firms.The only book still published by the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill is The Gregg Manual, an office reference that contains no mention of shorthand.But, as a technology for writing fast with pen and paper—still a fundamental skill for reporters like me—Gregg shorthand has never been surpassed.
Nowadays, you may have to buy an old Gregg manual on e-Bay and teach yourself, but even if you just learn the basics, Gregg will probably double your note taking speed.With practice and daily use, it’s not uncommon to reach speeds of 100 words a minute or more.And, paradoxically, shorthand is the perfect complement to the 21st Century technology of the smartpen.After all, shorthand—at least my shorthand—isn’t foolproof.Even though, for short stretches, I can write 120 words per minute, the average American now speaks at more than 150 words a minute, so something is inevitably lost in the translation.
With my trusty Sky smartpen, though, I don’t have to worry.Most of the time, when I get around to writing the story, I can rely on my handwritten notes for short quotes and background information.But when I need a longer, verbatim quote, I can use my notes as a kind of index to find the right part of the interview, and tap there with my pen to hear the playback.No more of the forward/reverse dance with a digital recorder when it’s time to transcribe.But whenever I get a little too smug about my clever use of this hybrid technology, I like to think about the great court reporting contests of the late 1920s when legends of shorthand, like Charles Swem and Martin Dupraw, competed head-to-head against one another.They took dictation in categories like “jury charge” and “testimony.” By 1927, the last of the National Speed Contests just between pen writers, the testimony category was conducted at 280 words a minute.That’s more than four words a second, fast even with a smartpen.Dupraw won, for the third year in a row, with a fountain pen.
The 1919 National Speed Contest (Internet Archive)